By National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Social, and Statistical Sciences Committee on AIDS Research and the Behavioral, Panel on the Evaluation of AI

With insightful dialogue of software evaluate and the efforts of the facilities for ailment keep watch over, this publication provides a collection of simple options to assist make sure that the immense assets dedicated to the struggle opposed to AIDS can be used such a lot successfully. This accelerated version of ''Evaluating AIDS Prevention Programs'' covers evaluate options and consequence measurements, together with a practical evaluate of the standards that make assessment of AIDS courses quite tough. Randomized box experiments are tested, concentrating on using substitute remedies instead of placebo controls. The booklet additionally stories nonexperimental thoughts, together with a serious exam of overview equipment which are observational instead of experimental - a need while randomized experiments are infeasible.

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5 These behaviors account for more than 96 percent of all new cases of HIV infection occurring worldwide, and they are the central means by which the infection is passed from person to person. Any infected individual who avoids these three behaviors virtually eliminates the possibility that he or she will transmit HIV to an uninfected person; any uninfected individual who avoids these behaviors virtually eliminates the possibility that he or she will acquire HIV from an infected person. A second group of direct behaviors that may be of interest in evaluation research on HIV prevention programs involve the partial elimination of risk.

That is, how small a treatment difference is it essential to detect if it is present? The smaller this quantity, the larger the number of units that are necessary. , Cohen, 1988). Practical circumstances occasionally allow choosing between designs that involve units at different levels; thus, a classroom might be the unit if the treatment is applied in one way, but an entire school might be the unit if the treatment is applied in another. When both approaches are feasible, the use of a power analysis for each approach may lead to a reasoned choice.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Behavioral Outcomes The past eight years of research on AIDS and HIV transmission have confirmed the specific behaviors that are overwhelmingly responsible for HIV infection. Consequently, it is not necessary to rely on HIV seroconversion as the primary outcome of evaluation studies of HIV prevention programs because those specific behaviors can be targeted for assessment. In contrast to studies that rely on seroconversion as the primary outcome, studies that rely on behavioral outcomes can be conducted more quickly and less expensively because they need not carry out the extensive screening required in seroconversion studies.

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