By David Moshman

Epistemic cognition, the philosophical middle of metacognition, issues people’s wisdom in regards to the justification and fact of ideals. a number of literatures in psychology and schooling tackle points of epistemic cognition. within the absence of a coherent conceptual framework, even if, those literatures commonly fail to speak with one another and infrequently attach purely loosely to actual epistemology. This complicates any attempt to accomplish a scientific theoretical knowing of epistemic cognition and its improvement. Deanna Kuhn writes in her foreword, "Moshman isn't the first to tackle this problem, yet he fulfills it elegantly and, i believe, the main comprehensively and astutely."

After reviewing the fundamentals of philosophical epistemology and cognitive psychology, Epistemic Cognition and Development offers a compelling account of developmental switch throughout adolescence and past in wisdom approximately wisdom, in particular in regards to primary conceptions of objectivity, subjectivity, rationality, justification, and fact. this is often by means of distinctive attention of domain-specific epistemologies of technological know-how, good judgment, morality, social conference, background, and identification, together with linked types of reasoning. the ultimate part offers theoretical conclusions, academic and social functions, and proposals for extra research.

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Sigmund Freud (1923/1960) revolutionized humanity’s conception of itself around the turn of the 20th century with a dual processing model of the mind that posited an unconscious realm of cognition and emotion generally beyond the reach of the conscious mind. Human motivation, in Freud’s view, is rooted in what he called the id, a seething cauldron of biological drives and repressed memories of early childhood traumas. Rationality is rooted in what he called the ego, the conscious side of us that does its best to the keep the id under control.

As we will see (Chapter 7) children distinguish logicomathematical from empirical knowledge on the basis of logical necessity beginning about age 6 or 7 years, with more abstract understandings of necessity, possibility, and impossibility continuing to develop beyond that age. It seems clear that there are close relations among a priori knowledge, analytic statements, and logical necessity, on the one hand, and among a posteriori knowledge, synthetic statements, and contingent knowledge on the other.

As we will see in Chapter 7, children distinguish logicomathematical from empirical knowledge beginning about age 6 or 7 years. This psychological fact may not resolve any epistemological issue for philosophers but information about the origins of an epistemological distinction may provide a useful context for thinking about its nature. A related (some would say identical) distinction is that between analytic and synthetic statements. Epistemologists disagree about how to define analytic and 16 Epistemology and Cognition how to distinguish it from synthetic, if such a distinction can even be made.

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