By W. Schofield

A vintage textbook offering a accomplished advent to the subject for HNC/D scholars. This booklet combines Schofield's earlier books in a single quantity, completely revised and up to date all through with new fabric on subject matters reminiscent of international Positioning satellite tv for pc structures, electronic levelling, land/geographic info systems.

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**Example text**

Also, if another network of a different shape, but with the same number of angles and lengths, was measured by the same observer using the same equipment under the same conditions, then different standard errors would result. Thus, wherever possible all sources of information should be analyzed to support the unit variance method. It should be further pointed out that because of the small number of degrees of freedom (DF) in such a network this method is not satisfactory for traverse networks. e.

Determine the most probable value of the line. (b) An angle was measured by three different observers, A, B and C. The mean of each set and its standard error is shown below. 0 Determine the most probable value of the angle. 032 m These values can now be used to weight the lengths and find their weighted means as shown below. ·. ·. 41 The student's attention is drawn to the method of finding the weighted mean in both these examples, although since the advent of the pocket calculator there is no need to refine the weights down from the weight ratio, particularly in (b).

However, as one reduces the number of lengths in a trilateration, the network appears to get stronger. The standard errors and errorellipses are zero when the minimum number of lengths is used. For instance, if only three sides of a triangle are measured, a triangle will always be formed without apparent error. Because of this, it is therefore doubtful that triangulateration can be successfully treated. Thus, optimization of engineering networks may not be a practical operation. 11. The same angle was measured by two different observers using the same instrument, as follows: Observer A Observer B o r rr 86 86 34 34 33 33 34 33 34 33 05 00 55 50 00 55 15 44 o f t / 34 33 33 34 33 34 34 34 » 10 50 40 00 50 10 00 20 Errors and adjustments Calculate: (a) The standard deviation of each set.