By ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND ALEXANDRIA VA

The technology of ballistics comprises the learn of the movement of projectiles as a selected department of utilized mechanics and similar fields of physics, chemistry, arithmetic, and engineering. an idea of the foundation for the layout of guns or improvement of ammunition can't be learned and not using a uncomplicated realizing of this technological know-how. This 1963 instruction manual provides information regarding each one section of ballistics to the level believed essential to pursue a research of the layout and engineering research of elements of weapon platforms which fulfill the elemental specifications of release, flight, and terminal results.

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Examples of two methods by which such conditions are resolved to standard conditions are indicated here. Firing tables include for absorbing the effects of nonstandard conditions into firing data; and tube serviceability standards are used to predict service life and effects of wear on specific guns firing specific types of ammunition. 1 residues generated from the burning of the propellant, as well as by t h e movement of the projectile through the bore. Erosion is often divided into three phases: (a) Gas erosion.

Due to the nature of the forces involved, as well as to the elasticity of the metal, the gun tube at the instant of projectile release is slightly concaved upward. ” A second factor, whose vertical component contributes to vertical jump, results from the reaction of the gun tube to the rotation of the spinning projectile. With a projectile rotating clockwise as viewed from the breech of the gun, the gun tube will tend to be twisted in a counterclockwise direction. A third factor results from the sudden shifting of the center of gravity of the system as the projectile speeds down the bore.

The different possible flow conditions in a divergent nozzle section are: ( a ) When the external pressure p,, is below nozzle pressure p,, the nozzle will flow full but will have expansion (tensile shock) waves at its exit section ( underexpansion). 4P,). Oblique shock waves exist outside the exit section. ( c ) For higher external pressure, a separation of the jet will take place in the divergent section of the nozzle. The separation is axially symmetrical and is accompanied by normal or oblique shock waves.

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