By Moser Caroline O. N., Cathy McIlwaine

Latin the United States is either the world's so much urbanized quickest constructing areas, the place the hyperlinks among social exclusion, inequality and violence are sincerely seen. The banal, ubiquitous nature of drug crime, theft, gang and intra-family violence destabilizes nations' economies and harms their humans and social structures.Encounters with Violence & Crime in Latin the USA explores the which means of violence and lack of confidence in 9 cities and towns in Columbia and Guatemala to create a framework of ways and why day-by-day violence happens on the group point. It makes use of pioneering new tools of participatory city appraisal to invite local community approximately their very own perceptions of violence as mediated through kin, gender, ethnicity and age. It develops a typology which distinguishes among the political, social, and fiscal violence that afflicts groups, and which assesses the prices of outcomes of violence when it comes to group harmony and social capital. this offers voice to these whose day-by-day lives and ruled by way of frequent aggression, and offers vital new insights for researchers and policy-makers.

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20 PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES The nature of policy approaches to violence varies according to academic discipline. This is clearly illustrated by the fact that well-established violence-focused professional disciplines such as criminology and epidemiology, whose research methods have traditionally been based on formal ‘etic’ quantitative methodologies, have well-developed solutions associated with their particular approaches to the problem. ’ Such criticism is strongest in its resistance to the categorization of quantitative knowledge to provide packaged solutions.

For instance, young people were more willing to discuss violence within the home than were older community members. In addition, women were much more likely to raise the issue than men, mainly because men were the primary perpetrators. It was often only possible to explore intra-family violence from the perspective of alcohol abuse.

While some may view participation merely as consultation with local people, others may assume it refers to genuine empowerment involving self-determination and action. Indeed, some go as far as to suggest that the opposite may occur, effectively leading to the disempowerment of communities (Cooke and Kothari 2001; Mohan 1999). Another limitation relates to the concept of ‘community’ as the primary unit of participatory research. Here it is essential to recognize that this does not imply a homogenous entity with defined boundaries (Guijt and Shah 1998).

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