By Michael Crosby

The San Fernando Valley quarter that turned the trendy urban of Encino has undergone a shockingly foreign series of possession, starting with local American tribes, then the Spanish and Californios, by way of the French, Basques, and american citizens. within the post-World battle II growth, Encino turned an prosperous enclave of these who portrayed the entire above at the display: Hollywood motion picture and tv stars. Encino originated round an artesian spring that served for numerous thousand years because the accumulating position of 3 tribes: the Fernandeño, Tongva, and Chumash. This spring, which used to be documented in Fr. Juan Crespi's diary throughout the Portola day trip in 1769, this present day nonetheless offers water in the grounds of Los Encinos nation historical Park. El encino is Spanish for "the oak," and the world was once so named for the giant landscape of oak groves overlaying it.

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They also joined other Americans who were skeptical of the temperance movement’s call for sumptuary laws by insisting that “prohibition does not prohibit,” and pointing out that simply making alcohol illegal would not keep people from finding a drink if they really wanted one. But they went a step further: American Jews presented themselves as a preferable counterpoint to both the drunkard and the teetotaler, and counseled their fellow Americans, as Rabbi Marcus Jastrow said in 1874, to “do as we Israelites do” by neither loving nor despising alcohol excessively.

In late nineteenth-century Cincinnati, for instance, German immigrants made up as much as a fifth of the local population. In this context, Jews in the alcohol trade, themselves German immigrants, often participated in local German American culture. The Jewish distiller Samuel Setting up Shop | 33 N. 64 But most Jewish alcohol entrepreneurs set their sights beyond German cultural associations. Their interest in civic engagement occasionally led them into politics, and those who held elected offices acted as public representatives of both their ethnic and their business communities.

In the mid-nineteenth century, several credit-reporting agencies began to offer their services to American wholesalers. R. G. , the predominant credit reference agency of the nineteenth century, hired correspondents all over the country to investigate the reputations and assess the financial standing of businessmen seeking to purchase stock on credit. 74 The credit reports accumulated by R. G. Dun & Co. indicate that Jewish alcohol entrepreneurs were assessed as creditworthy—which is to say, trustworthy and capable of paying off their debts—on a regular basis.

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