By Martin L. Hoffman

Modern theories have quite often enthusiastic about both the behavioral, cognitive or emotional dimensions of prosocial ethical improvement. This quantity offers the 1st entire account of prosocial ethical improvement in young children. The book's concentration is empathy's contribution to altruism and compassion for others in actual, mental, or monetary misery; emotions of guilt over harming anyone; emotions of anger at others who do damage; emotions of injustice whilst others don't obtain their due. additionally highlighted are the mental procedures occupied with empathy's interplay with definite parental behaviors that foster ethical internalization in teenagers and the mental procedures excited by empathy's relation to summary ethical ideas.

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Charles Darwin (1877) was thefirstto state the feedback hypothesis ("He who gives way to violent gestures will increase 39 Innocent Bystander rage; he who does not control the signs of fear will experience fear in a greater degree/7 p. 365). William James (1893) went further, postulating that feedback was the key to all emotional experience. The way people know how they feel is by sensing it from their muscular as well as their glandular and visceral responses. The wellknown quote is "We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, and afraid because we tremble/7 James advanced this view a century ago, but it has only recently been put to the test.

And still another uses "confronting," a type of induction that directs the participant's attention to the harm to others resulting from his actions in the group. Its aim is to counteract egoism, penetrate cognitive distortions, and elicit and strengthen empathic responses. Confronting compels the antisocial individual to put himself in another's 24 Introduction and Overview position and understand the "chain of injuries/' including effects on absent and indirect victims that result from his harmful actions.

4,10) Lipps (1906) defined empathy as an innate, involuntary, isomorphic response to another person's expression of emotion. A close reading of his work shows that he saw the process as involving two distinct steps that operate in rapid sequence (Hoffman, 1978). " The resulting changes in the observer's facial, vocal, and postural musculature then trigger afferent feedback which produces feelings in the observer that match the feelings of the victim. To avoid confusion, I refer to the two steps as "imitation" and "feedback" and the entire process as mimicry.

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