By Dante Cicchetti, Donald J. Cohen

Developmental Psychopathology, quantity three, probability, ailment, and variation presents a existence span developmental point of view on "high-risk" stipulations and psychological problems. furthermore, it examines developmental pathways to resilient version within the face of adversity.

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Because social support is not the same thing as network size, it is noteworthy that in some cases, access to only one or a few confidants is sufficient to significantly aid coping under stress (Cohen & Wills, 1985; Gottlieb, 1985). , 1986), the absence of a confiding relationship has been found to significantly distinguish whether individuals under stress developed affective problems or not. For adults, supportive intimacy can be found with a romantic partner or spouse; in the study by Pelligrini and colleagues, it was the absence of a best friend that predicted risk for affective disorders in middle childhood.

Relationships with natural social network members benefit recipients because of their convenience and mutuality. Each partner is likely to share congruent values and perspectives, and these relationships are influential because they are likely to be enduring and thus well-integrated into many aspects of the recipient’s daily experiences (Cochran, Larner, Riley, Gunnarsson, & Henderson, 1990). But because natural helpers share the circumstances and values of recipients, they may also share their stresses and difficulties and may be less sensitive to, or unwilling to challenge, unhealthy or inappropriate conduct if it is typical for their reference group (such as harsh parenting or substance abuse).

There is evidence for the stress-buffering effects of positive peer relationships as well. In the prospective longitudinal study by Dodge, Pettit, Bates, and their colleagues, peer acceptance moderated the effects of low SES, high family stress, single-parent status, and violent marital conflict on the development of externalizing behavior in early grade school (Criss, Pettit, Bates, Dodge, & Lapp, 2002). In the same study, peer acceptance and friendship overlapped in their moderation of the effects of harsh discipline on the same outcomes.

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