By DANTE CICCHETTI

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At this point in the empirical investigation of resilience, the next logical step is to include a biological perspective on resilience in order to achieve a truly complete understanding of this phenomenon. Within the scope of this section, it is not be possible to cover all of the areas of biological functioning that might potentially contribute to resilient functioning. Rather, we focus on several broad areas that directly and/or indirectly reflect the functioning of major human biological systems that have clear links to human behavior.

2005). The extremely long juvenile period (neotony) in humans may have evolved, in part, for the primary purpose of shifting cortical specification from genetic to epigenetic control (Cicchetti & Tucker, 1994a). During the past several decades, scientific research has begun to reveal that, within certain limits, forms of neural plasticity may take place throughout epigenesis and are not limited to early development (Cicchetti & Tucker, 1994b; Hann, Huffman, Lederhendler, & Meinecke, 1998; Kandel & Squire, 2000).

Unraveling these misorganizations in brain development should contribute greatly to understanding the genesis and epigenesis of schizophrenic disorders. As highlighted in the previous sections, advances in neuroscience have begun to inform neurodevelopmental theories of Autism and Schizophrenia. , Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Bipolar Disorder) in a neurodevelopmental context (see Cicchetti & Cannon, 1999a; Cicchetti & Walker, 2003). In fact, it is clear that developmental psychopathology has made great strides in recent years to incorporate multiple levels of analysis in its conceptual and empirical framework, and the understanding of the development of psychopathology generally has made great advances by employing findings from basic neuroscience and normal brain development.

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