By Eric Margolis, Stephen Laurence

Creations of the brain provides 16 unique essays by way of theorists from a large choice of disciplines who've a shared curiosity within the nature of artifacts and their implications for the human brain. all of the papers are written in particular for this quantity, they usually disguise a large variety of themes fascinated with the metaphysics of artifacts, our innovations of artifacts and the types that they characterize, the emergence of an realizing of artifacts in babies' cognitive improvement, in addition to the evolution of artifacts and using instruments via non-human animals. This quantity should be a desirable source for philosophers, cognitive scientists, and psychologists, and the place to begin for destiny examine within the research of artifacts and their position in human figuring out, improvement, and behavior.Contributors: John R. Searle, Richard E. Grandy, Crawford L. Elder, Amie L. Thomasson, Jerrold Levinson, Barbara C. Malt, Steven A. Sloman, Dan Sperber, Hilary Kornblith, Paul Bloom, Bradford Z. Mahon, Alfonso Caramazza, Jean M. Mandler, Deborah Kelemen, Susan Carey, Frank C. Keil, Marissa L. Greif, Rebekkah S. Kerner, James L. Gould, Marc D. Hauser, Laurie R. Santos, and Steven Mithen.

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They have essences. That artifacts and natural kinds are disjoint is clear from the definitions. For example, Hilpinen (2004) characterizes an artifact as ‘an object that has been intentionally made or produced for a certain purpose’, so artifacts violate condition (1). However, if these categories are not exhaustive, then our conception of how different they are may change. For example, if natural kinds and artifacts are not dichotomous, then the question considered by Elder (this volume) of the ontological status of artifacts becomes more complex.

Gold coins may be of no use to me, but I may still value them highly if I know that others do and I can exchange them for chickens and bread. At the final stage (so far) my bank doesn’t have any physical object or substance which is the money in my checking account (see Searle, this volume). Thomasson (1999, this volume), in a slightly different context, made the very important distinction between dependence of origin and dependence of continuing existence or properties. The value of my paper dollar bill, both the exact amount and the fact that it has any, depends on the current attitudes of an indeterminately large number of people.

For example, we might have tables that, instead of folding for storage, easily disassemble and reassemble; they might spend most of their existence disassembled in our storage closet. So those examples fit ordinary intuitions, and the rub comes in providing principled reasons for rejecting the general extension of these ideas by means of other examples and arguments. Some examples, such as Cartwright’s twovolume edition of The Nature of Existence and Jubien’s three-piece suit, seem easily disqualified as collections of objects whose function involves all of the pieces, but each of which is a separate object.

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