By Stanley M. Yamashiro (auth.), Yoshiyuki Honda, Yoshimi Miyamoto, Kimio Konno, John G. Widdicombe (eds.)

The 5th Oxford convention used to be hung on September 17th-19th, 1991, on the Fuji Institute of educating in Japan -the first time that the assembly has taken position within the Asian quarter. The proof that just a particularly few eastern had attended past Oxford meetings and that Japan is much from different areas with attainable contributors made the organizers expect a small attendance on the assembly. even though, opposite to our expectancies, 198 lively contributors (72 international and 126 household individuals) submitted 146 papers from 15 international locations. This was once a ways past our initial estimate and will have triggered difficulties in supplying lodging for the members and in programming their medical displays. those problems, even though, have been effectively triumph over by utilizing within reach motels, through telecasting displays right into a moment classroom and by way of exhibiting a considerable variety of poster shows through the entire interval of the assembly. The assembly had kinds of classes: standard and present subject matters. the 1st paper in every one consultation represented a shon evaluation or creation that allows you to make it more straightforward for the viewers to appreciate the issues at factor. due to the huge variety of papers submitted, conscientiously chosen audio system (mostly famous students) made very good displays that have been by way of vigorous discussions. during this manner, the convention laid a origin on which to base its persisted clinical success.

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I, . Jif:t+ t I I OFF Fig. 5. Effects of iontophoretically applied picrotoxin on inhibition of unit discharge of a upper cervical inspiratory neuron and Cs phrenic nerve discharge induced by stimulation of the NRM. Upper (Control) and lower (Iontophoretic) sets are continuous records. Upper traces are phrenic nerve discharges and lower traces are Cl inspiratory neuron discharge (sec inset, indicated by an arrow). Picrotoxin was continuously delivered (200 nA), (beginning a few seconds before electrical stimulation of the NRM and to the end of the trace) at the recording site with a double barreled electrode.

Summary of effects of hypocapnia and hypoxia on respiratory tImIng and peak inspiratory activities. Phr, phrenic nerve; IX, glossopharyngeal nerve; CONT, control condition; HPOC, hypocapnia; HPOX, hypoxia; CSN, carotid sinus nerve. Results were obtained in control condition and at 5-10 s prior to apnea. Values obtained at 5-10 min after administration of supplemental dose of urethane were not included. indicated that signif icant spacial inhomogeneity in the responses of various cranial nerve motoneurons to reduced respiratory stimuli or to anesthetic agents.

Standaert, S. J. Neurosci. 6: 1220(1986). 21. Tabata, Distribution of trigeminal sensory nucleus neurons projecting to the mesencephalic parabrachial area of the cat, Neurosci. Lett. 122: 75(1991). 22. Kuhar, Autoradiographic localization of opiate receptors in rat brain. II. The brain stem, Brain Res. 129: 1(1977). 23. Denavit-Saubie, Localization of muand delta-opioid receptors in cat respiratory areas: an autoradiographic stUdy, Brain Res. 344:382(1985). 40 24. Miyazaki, N. Neurol. 279: 445( 1989).

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