By C. Gordon Bell, J. Craig Mudge, John E. McNamara, Kenneth H. Olson

This publication has been written for practising computing device designers, no matter if their area is microcomputers, minicomputers, or huge desktops. The booklet makes use of the case examine solution to express how the entire various factors (technology push, undefined, production, etc.) shape the real-world constraints and possibilities which impression machine engineering. For examples, now we have used 30 DEC pcs, plus a few PDP-11-based machines equipped at Carnegie-Mellon college

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6. 7. Planning for consumption. This includes maintenance, reliability, safety, use, aesthetics, operational economy, and the base for enhancements to extend the product life. Retirement of the product. Obviously all of these activities overlap one another in time and interact as the basic design is carried out. Phister [1976] posits a model of this process (Figures 14 and 15) and gives the amount of time spent in each activity (Figure 16) for a hardware product. Simon uses a more abstract model of design for human problem solving, which he calls generate and test.

The difference lies in realization: the 709 used vacuum tubes, the 7090 transistors. For a more recent example, two models of the PDP-11 architecture that share the same implementation are the DEC PDP-11/34 and Norden's 11/34M. The realization differs, however, as the latter uses militarized semiconductor components and component mountings, and a different packaging and cooling system. Table 6 attempts to clarify the distinguishing characteristics of architecture, implementation, and realization.

The structures that interconnect to mechanical processes are predominately for manufacturing control. Other environments, such as transportation, are also basically realtime control. Another feature of disciplinebased functional segmentation is that each of the disciplines operates on different symbols. , cost, number in inventory). 16 COMPUTER ENGINEERING Table 3. Discipline/Environment-Based Functional Segmentation Scheme Commercial environment • Financial control for industry, retail/wholesale, and distribution • Billing, inventory, payroll, accounts receivable/ payable • Records storage and processing • Traditional batch data entry • Transaction processing against data base • Business analysis (includes calculators)* Scientific, engineering, and design • Numbers, algorithms, symbols, text, graphs, storage, and processing • Traditional batch computation* • Data acquisition • Interactive problem solving* • Real time (includes calculators and text processing) • Signal and image processing* • Data base (notebooks and records) Manufacturing • Record storage and processing • Batch* • Data logging and alarm checking • Continuous real-time control • Discrete real-time control • Machine based • People/parts flow Communications and publishing • Message switching • Front-end processing • Store and forward networks • Speech input/output • Terminals and systems • Word processing, including computer conferencing and publishing Transportation systems • Network flow control • On-board control Education • Computer-assisted instruction • Algorithms, symbols, text storage, and processing • Drill and practice • Library storage Home using television set • Entertainment, record keeping, instruction, data base access ♦implies continuous program development The scientific, engineering, and design disciplines use various algorithms for deriving symbols or evaluating values.

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