By Giorgio Fagiolo, Javier Reyes, Stefano Schiavo (auth.), Santo Fortunato, Giuseppe Mangioni, Ronaldo Menezes, Vincenzo Nicosia (eds.)

We reside in a networked global. individuals are getting progressively more interconnected throughout the new info and verbal exchange applied sciences, like cell phones and the Internet.
The functionality of cells could be understood through networks of interacting proteins. Ecosystems might be defined via networks of taxonomic relationships among species. The community illustration has proved to be a robust software to appreciate the constitution and the dynamics of advanced structures. because the pioneering discovery of the scale-free estate of the area broad internet by way of Albert, Jeong and Barabási, the learn of complicated networks has develop into the prime self-discipline in complexity science.
This quantity is meant to deliver to the eye of the clinical group fresh advances in advanced networks. It covers major points of networks' constitution and dynamics, either from the analytical and the empirical viewpoint. The works of this assortment are contributed by means of a very interdisciplinary neighborhood of scientists, from physicists to mathematicians, from desktop scientists to engineers and economists.

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1 Modular organization of the yeast transcription network (YTN). (A) S. cerevisiae transcription network as proposed by MacIsaac et al. 2006 [27]. (B) The 15 communities in the YTN were found by using Clauset’s et al. algorithm [11]. S. Cristino et al. Table 1 Structural and functional properties of the communities identified in the YTN. 09E-06 communities are interconnected by 1036 edges and, except for modules 4 and 14, all modules are densely interconnected (Figure 1B). The number of connections between each community is different and community 3 and 7 are those which are most connected in the YTN (Figure 1B).

1a. The selected set consists of Ns = 1216 genes. Among these the first 612 in the ranking order are the genes which are expressed throughout the entire cell cycle, while the following 604 genes are mostly expressed within one or two of the cell cycle phases (G1,S,G2,M). In the following we will focus on this latter group of genes (cell-cycle genes). For the illustration, in Fig. 2 are shown the expressions for several cell-cycle genes within the first cycle. For each pair of genes we compute the correlation coefficients of the temporal differential gene expressions Δ Xi (t), which is given by Ci j (t − t ) = ∑t (Δ Xi (t) − Δ Xi )(Δ X j (t − t ) − Δ X j ) σi σ j .

In this case the generated network consists of several disjoint clusters of few high correlated volcanoes (volcanoes that erupt in unison) connected by strong links. Therefore, due to the disconnected nature these graph are not suitable to study relationships among active volcanoes on a planetary scale. By decreasing the threshold value a lot of weaker links among volcanoes are obtained.. The terms strong and weak links are used according to the Granovetter work [4] . 6. In this way the isolated nodes or the fragmented small clusters of the resulting networks are not taken into account.

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