By R. D. Norton

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Extra resources for City Life-Cycles and American Urban Policy. Studies in Urban Economics

Example text

T h e c o n c l u d i n g section b r i n g s t h e story u p t o d a t e w i t h a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e c r o s s - c u r r e n t s o f t h e 1 9 7 0 s — a n d in p a r t i c u l a r of t h e n o - g r o w t h m e t r o p o l i s , w h o s e a p p e a r a n c e h a s m e a n t a c c e l e r a t e d p o p u l a t i o n losses by t h e old cities. A C C O U N T I N G F O R C O N T R A S T S I N CITY POPULATION GROWTH C o n t r a s t s in city g r o w t h r a t e s b e t w e e n 1 9 5 0 a n d 1 9 7 0 h a v e t w o o b v i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s .

At i s s u e is t h e c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e m i n o r i t y p o o r in c i t i e s o f f e r i n g d i m i n i s h i n g j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h a t is, in t h e d e c l i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l cities. T h i s f u n d a m e n t a l u r b a n p r o b l e m h a s two distinct s o u r c e s : t h e o l d c i t y ' s l o n g - t e r m j o b l o s s e s a n d its c o n c e n t r a t e d m i n o r ity p o v e r t y , a s r e i n f o r c e d by s u b u r b a n e x c l u s i o n a r y p r a c t i c e s .

By c o n t r a s t , t h e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n s o f m o s t i n d u s t r i a l u r b a n a r e a s g r e w at r a t e s well below t h e n a t i o n a l i n c r e a s e . Specifically, t h e a v e r a g e g a i n f o r t h e 12 o l d c i t i e s w a s 2 6 % , c o m p a r e d w i t h a 3 2 % r i s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f w h i t e s in t h e n a t i o n a s a w h o l e . H e n c e t h e o l d e r a r e a ' s white population growth can be attributed to natural increases a l o n e — t h a t is, t o t h e e x c e s s o f b i r t h s o v e r d e a t h s .

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