By R. J. Prince (auth.), R. M. Mortier, S. T. Orszulik (eds.)

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There are also concerns about interchangeability of base oils made by different refineries. Base oil refineries are under pressure to make the base oils that the lubricant marketers require in addition to meeting volume demands and economic pressures to reduce costs. These pressures will be met by modernisation programmes and, to a lesser extent, by construction of new plant. New BASE OILS FROM PETROLEUM 31 base oil capacity is very expensive to build and can only be justified at present where there are special economic reasons.

As with Alel 3 , BF 3 requires a co-catalyst for effective oligomerisation. The type of co-catalyst, which can be water, or an alcohol, acid, ether or ketone, has a significant effect on the degree of oligomerisation. The most common co-catalysts are alcohols, especially n-propanol and n-butanol. It has been suggested that the co-catalyst is needed in a less than molar equivalence to the Lewis acid (Brennan, 1980). 2) The propagation step proposed by Whitmore (1934) involves the insertion of monomer between the olefinic cation and its associated gegenion.

However, a few new plants have been built and many others have undergone modernisation programmes and capacity increase through de-bottlenecking. As a result, there has been a modest increase in production capacity over this period. Future developments in petroleum-derived base oils will be driven by marketing demands for improved base oils and developments in manufacturing technology. Health and safety constraints have reduced demand for naphthenic base oils, but the application of hydroprocessing technology has largely solved this problem.

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