By Clive Phillips

Livestock are certainly one of our significant domesticated animals, the next mammal with advanced psychological and actual wishes. the advantage of an information of livestock behaviour skill veterinarians and stockpeople can know irregular behaviour indicators for affliction prognosis and indication of an insufficient surroundings. This booklet replaces the ebook farm animals Behaviour, written through a similar writer and released by way of Farming Press in 1993. The textual content has been revised and up to date and 4 new chapters on livestock welfare were further. the most curiosity of many interpreting a ebook on behaviour is its relation to the welfare of the species, so the mix of welfare and behavior is a logical one

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Sometimes it is necessary to ration cattle by using blocks or roller balls in drums, which reduce intake by adding a high salt content. This may, however, stimulate demand for water, often in short supply in a drought. , 2000), and the tolerance of cattle to high sodium concentrations is variable. In later stages of a drought, it may be necessary to increase the quantities of supplements fed in order that the cattle survive. The effects of drought will be compounded by ill health, particularly that caused by gastrointestinal parasites, which reduce the value of food provided to the cattle.

0 5 From Connell (1984). qxd 42 16/07/2002 09:20 Page 42 Cattle behaviour and welfare that adult cattle require 1 m2 per 360 kg and calves require 1 m2 per 180 kg. The behavioural reactions of male, female or neutered cattle to transport appear similar, so recommendations are not specific for gender. Pen size should not be too great or the cattle may aggregate at one end. 7 m for older cattle (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1997). Internal divisions should be of an appropriate height – 76 cm for calves and 127 cm for older cattle.

Livestock are either sold in their pens or through sales rings, where the animals are brought to the buyers. Sales are invariably by auction, and there is no doubt that the markets perform an important social function for farmers, many of whom live in isolated areas. Most purchases are by farmers themselves, or agents who purchase on behalf of farmers or abattoirs. Much of the detail of requirements for abattoir lairage applies to market pens. Cattle should not be overstocked, mixing should be avoided, and electric goads should only be used if absolutely necessary and applied only to the hindquarters.

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