By Vinood B. Patel, Victor R. Preedy (eds.)

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2013). Small number of cases and different study design may explain the discrepancies. In a cohort of 112 transplant patients and 11 healthy controls, the miRNA profile of patients with chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) differed from that of acute rejection. Increased expression of miR-142-5p in PBMCs has been reported in CAMR. 74) (Danger et al. 2013). As mentioned above, most of the miRNA studies are on urine samples, and the recent data opens new fields in biomarker studies in PBMCs or blood samples.

Additionally, these biomarkers must be clinically available and cost effective. Biofluids such as blood and urine are readily available and relatively noninvasive samples with the ability of repeated sampling and follow-up monitoring. Finding and proving the clinical use of biomarkers of ATN, DGF, acute rejection, transplant glomerulopathy (TG), chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD), and tolerance would help to prolong allograft survival. In the following sections, biomarkers of acute rejection and allograft tolerance will be discussed as a guide for immunosuppression therapy.

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 5 6 7 19 19 22 22 24 Abstract Kidney transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy. The progressions in immunosuppressive drugs improved the short-term survival, but 10-year graft survival is about 50 %, only. Acute or chronic rejection, drug nephrotoxicity, and transplant glomerulopathy all have adverse impacts on graft survival.

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