By Bernard Bloch (auth.), Hartmut F. Hildebrand, Maxime Champy (eds.)
For numerous years now clinical and scientific sLaff have known the hazards of toxicity of convinced metals contained in alloys utilized in Lhe manufacture of biomaterials protheses, implants, and synthetic organs. a host or medical and commercial examine centres have focussed their investigations during this path and overseas societies and commissions have organised conferences with experts from complementary disciplines in attendance in makes an attempt to judge the significance of organic hazards and to figure out the toxicity of convinced metals, with the purpose of building preventive measures and instructions. within the final century nice efforts were made to minimize undesirable organic results because of orthopaedic implants. the issues of ache and an infection have been conquer and the improvement of contemporary know-how has ended in a powerful lessen in corrosion difficulties and mechanical failure, such that ostosynthesis and endoprosthesis have swiftly advanced past the extent of tentative investingation.llowever, a couple of difficulties nonetheless stay to be solved, resembling the impression of the cloth style at the therapeutic technique and its relative velocity. The expanding use of cobalt-,chromium-and nickel-containing alloys in surgical and dental implants has raised quite a few questions about the organic results of continual inner unlock of those components within the human physique. a complete of fifty five delegates representing sixteen international locations heard displays of primary features, neighborhood and distant tissue reaction, immunopathology, medical facets, and production qual ity keep watch over issues.
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Additional resources for Biocompatibility of Co-Cr-Ni Alloys
Under these circumstances and in view of the extremely small daily requirements it is difficult to see how deficiency can be so common as has been suggested. By analogy to the rapid development of zinc deficiency in fetuses of pregnant rats which occurs within a few days after a zinc deficient diet is begun and long before the tissue content is depleted, it is possible that only a small fraction of chromium is biologically available. Conclusion : the daily requirements of chromium to balance output appear to be less than 1 ~g.
W. Payne: Arch. Environ (1962) • 55. Kuschner, M. & S. Laskin: Amer. J. (1971) . 56. , M. T. Drews: in Hauna et al. ): Inhalation Carcinogenesis, US Atomic Energy Commission, Div. Techn. Inform. Extension pp. 321-351 (1970) • 57. P. J. Fedorova: Vop. Onkol. 13, 57-62 (1967). - 58. B. C. L. S. ~, 1744-1747 (1976). ~, 321-340 (1978). Health~, ~, 20-26 (1960). 842-857 (1961). Hlth~, Pathol~, 445-462 183-191 MEASUREMENT OF THE UPTAKE OF CHROMIUM Dennis Shapcott Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke Quebec JIH 5N4 Canada SUMMARY Chromium is held to be an essential trace element.
In this review I will firstly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various analytical technique and results obtained thereby, but more point will be placed on the physiology of chromium and on what factors influence the actual analytical results. 31 Measurement of this element poses a number of difficulties : chromium is present at sub parts per million in living tissue which necessitates analysis by physical techniques, the near ubiquitous presence of Cr due to the use of stainless steel in the manufacture of chemicals and in sciencific apparatus, and also the possibility of different forms of Cr with different properties.