By Heidi Keller, Ype H. Poortinga, Axel Schölmerich

Breaking clear of the normal nature/nurture dialectic, this learn brings jointly organic, mental and cultural views on improvement. It asserts that the organic bases of habit and cultural context could be approached in an built-in model to correctly comprehend ontogenetic improvement and the restrictions and possibilities for improvement. It additionally examines impacts on developmental idea and the level to which cultural principles and practices mirror organic and mental constraints.

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Heredity and environment. Are they antithetical? Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 20, 245–60. DeCasper, A. J. and Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences: newborns’ perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 133–50. , Knight, C. and Power, C. ) (1999). The evolution of culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Gottlieb, G. (1998). Normally occurring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity: from central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis.

As far as development is concerned, there is again a historical precedent. George Romanes (1880) was a follower and prot´eg´e of Darwin’s who treated 26 Gustav Jahoda human psychology as a purely biological product created by evolutionary processes. As far as cognitive development in childhood was concerned, this led him to a bizarre comparative scale: at birth a baby’s mental capacity is that of a jellyfish, at three weeks of worms, at fourteen weeks of spiders and crabs, at five months horses, pigs, or cats, and so on.

Biologie, Ideologie und menschliche Natur. Munich: Psychologie-Verlags-Union (originally published in 1984 as Not in our genes. Biology, ideology, and human nature. New York: Pantheon Books). MacDonald, K. B. (1988). Social and personality development. An evolutionary synthesis. New York: Plenum Press. Mayr, E. (1974). Behavior programmes and evolutionary strategies. American Sciences, 62, 650–9. Miller, J. G. (1997). Theoretical issues in cultural psychology. In J. W. Berry, Y. H. Poortinga and J.

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