By George Jack

Beowulf, the main surviving poem in outdated English, consists in a language that's wealthy yet frequently tough. This totally annotated version makes the poem extra obtainable in its unique language, whereas while delivering the fabrics beneficial for its unique research at either undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. To facilitate knowing and fluent analyzing of the poem, the previous English textual content of Beowulf is right here observed by means of an intensive working thesaurus together with the higher a part of the vocabulary of the poem. phrases that ensue greater than as soon as are glossed on every one party. The inclusion of marginal glosses will let readers who should be at an early level within the examine of previous English to manage extra simply with the advanced vocabulary of the poem. yet this variation isn't intended just for people who are drawing close outdated English for the 1st time; it truly is designed to be appropriate for college kids at any level, and people who are already accustomed to outdated English will locate the marginal glosses of worth in allowing Beowulf to be learn extra fluently. George Jack's creation considers the origins and transmission of the poem, and offers a survey of its narrative components and elegance. a whole statement on textual and interpretative difficulties, issues of grammar and which means, and concerns of literary and old context is supplied, as is a consultant to extra studying on Beowulf. The textual content of the Finnsburh Fragment has additionally been integrated, due to its designated relevance to Beowulf, and it's likewise observed by means of marginal glosses and notes.

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6 eorlas (MS eorl). The context requires a plural form, and the emendation eorlas ‘warriors’ has commonly been accepted. Wrenn-Bolton and Swanton (1978) emend to Eorle ‘the Heruli’, a Germanic tribe said by the sixth-century historian Jordanes to have been defeated by the Danes. But it is preferable to adopt eorlas, since line 6a, like 4-5, is likely to be general in application rather than referring to a particular people. Bammesberger (1992: 239-43) proposes to retain the manuscript form, interpreting it as the plural of a hitherto unrecognized neuter noun eorl ‘group of warriors’, and he cites 795 eorl as a possible instance of the collective noun.

G. g. g. 643). The classifi­ cation of strong verbs follows the traditional sevenfold division, set out on p. 217 below. Classification is not provided for weak verbs, or for strong verbs when they occur in the present tense or the infinitive. Other information is occasionally provided as an aid to understanding. g. 308 ongyton, which is an infinitive but shows the ending -on rather than -an. The gender of a noun, though not specified as a matter of course, is occasionally given, since it may clarify the structure or interpretation of a passage.

The Fight at Finnsburh and the Finn-episode in Beowulf (1068-1159) overlap in their narrative materials, though the episode in Beowulf begins at a point after the events of Finnsburh have taken place. The chief figures of the episode in Beowulf are Hnaef, leader of the Danes (or ‘Half-Danes’), his sister Hildeburh, the Frisian king Finn, to whom Hildeburh is married, and Hengest, who assumes leadership of the Danes after Hnaef has been slain. Conflict between the Danes and the Frisians had evidently broken out while Hnaef and his retinue were staying at Finn’s stronghold, and in the ensuing battle both Hnaef and the son of Finn and Hildeburh were slain.

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