By John H. Thomas III (auth.), Alvin W. Czanderna, Theodore E. Madey, Cedric J. Powell (eds.)

Many books can be found that element the fundamental rules of different tools of floor characterization. however, the clinical literature offers a source of ways person items of analysis are carried out via specific labo- tories. among those extremes the literature is skinny however it is the following that the current quantity with ease sits. either the newcomer and the extra mature scientist will locate in those chapters a wealth of element in addition to recommendation and basic advice of the critical phenomena suitable to the research of actual samples. within the research of samples, useful analysts have relatively basic types of ways every little thing works. Superimposed in this perfect global is an realizing of the way the parameters of the dimension strategy, the instrumentation, and the char- teristics of the pattern distort this excellent global into anything much less distinct, much less managed, and no more understood. The suggestions given in those chapters permits the scientist to appreciate how you can receive the main targeted and understood measu- ments which are presently attainable and, the place there are inevitable difficulties, to have transparent suggestions because the quantity of the matter and its most likely behavior.

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II, 1240 (1974). 74. D. Briggs, V. A. Gibson, and J. K. Becconsall, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 11,343 (1977). 75. M. Batista-Leal, J. E. Lester, and C. A. Lucchesi, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 11, 333 (1977). 76. A. Dilks, Degrad. Stab. Polym. 1, 600 (1983). 77. D. T. Clark, Physicochem. Aspects Polym. Surf. 1, 3 (1983); Pure Appl. Chem. 54, 415 (1982); ACS Symp. , Vol. 162, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (1981) p. 247; Pure Appl. Chem. 57, 941 (1985). 78. D. T. Clark, A.

Thomas III Samples covered with thin layers should be treated differently because of the possibility of differential charging as a function of depth. In-depth charging can occur, for example, when measuring thin layers on silicon. Lau(26) has shown that the induced field at the Si surface due to photoemission can result in band bending. When the take-off angle is varied from a normal to a grazing angle with the surface, numerical analysis shows that the Si 2p peak shifts to higher binding energy and broadens with the sampled depth, assuming that depletion at the surface is complete (that is, band bending is equal to the band gap).

16. R. T. Lewis and M. A. Kelly, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 20, 105 (1980). 17. M. F. Ebel and H. Ebel, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 3, 169 (1974). 18. T. Dickinson, A. F. Povey, and P. M. A. Sherwood, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 2, 441 (1973). 19. J. S. Brinen, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 5, 377 (1974); in: Applied Surface Analysis, ASTM STP-699 (T. L. Barr and L. E. ), ASTM, Philadelphia (1978), pp. 24–41. 20. C. D. Wagner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 18, 345 (1980).