By Alan L. Olmstead
Over sixty percentage of all infectious human illnesses, together with tuberculosis, influenza, cholera, and hundreds of thousands extra, are shared with different vertebrate animals. Arresting Contagion tells the tale of ways early efforts to wrestle farm animals infections became the USA from a disease-prone state right into a global chief in controlling communicable ailments. Alan Olmstead and Paul Rhode convey that many inventions devised within the struggle opposed to animal illnesses, starting from border regulate and nutrition inspection to drug laws and the production of federal examine labs, supplied the basis for contemporary meals security courses and stay on the center of U.S. public future health policy.
America’s first concerted attempt to regulate cattle ailments dates to the founding of the Bureau of Animal (BAI) in 1884. as the BAI represented a milestone in federal law of trade and undefined, the company encountered significant jurisdictional and constitutional hindrances. however, it proved potent in halting the unfold of illnesses, counting between its early breakthroughs the invention of Salmonella and advances within the knowing of vector-borne diseases.
By the Nineteen Forties, executive regulations had eradicated a number of significant animal ailments, saving thousands of lives and developing a version for eradication that will be used all over the world. even supposing clinical advances performed a key function, executive interventions did in addition. this day, a dominant financial ideology frowns on govt legislation of the economic climate, however the authors argue that during this example it used to be a necessary strength for good.
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Extra resources for Arresting Contagion: Science, Policy, and Conflicts over Animal Disease Control
Some diseases had long incubation periods and thus could be spread by apparently healthy animals. At times, the most visible symptoms were caused by secondary infections, adding to the confusion. For diseases such as Texas fever, the involvement of parasites and the development of partial immunity due to previous infections greatly intensiﬁed the difﬁculty of explaining why some animals died and others 19 Arresting | Contagion 20 survived in apparent good health. Gradually, scientists revealed the secrets of speciﬁc diseases, and often their ﬁ ndings were so revolutionary that it was difﬁcult to convince other scientists, let alone the public, of their veracity.
In April 1860, the Massachusetts legislature established a board of commissioners with powers to quarantine, kill, and dispose of infected and exposed animals. Within the ﬁ rst year, ofﬁcials destroyed over 900 cattle, but the disease continued to spread. 16 In August 1877, CBPP erupted in a dairy herd near Clinton, New Jersey. Ofﬁcials dragged their feet and belatedly enacted emergency measures in March 1879. The law gave the governor considerable discretion, including the powers to quarantine farms and stockyards, to inspect shipments into the state, and to order the destruction of animals.
Pork imports 28 February, but ban revoked July 10 subject to microscopic inspection of imports. 1892 Ban lifted in May. S. swine. Source: Suellen Hoy and Walter Nugent, “Public Health or Protectionism? The German-American Pork War, 1880–1891,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 63, no. 2 (1989): 198–224; James H. Cassedy, “Applied Microscopy and American Pork Diplomacy: Charles Wardell Stiles in Germany 1898–1899,” Isis 62, no. 1 (1971): 5–20; John L. Gignilliat, “Pigs, Politics, and Protection: The Eu ropean Boycott of American Pork, 1879–1891,” Agricultural History 35, no.