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The current belief that a particular behavior or biological reaction maintains the same meaning across different incentives and contexts is retarding progress. Consider, again, the popular assumption that the duration of bodily immobility, or the magnitude of potentiated startle, in response to a conditioned stimulus that signals electric shock means that the animal is in a state of fear mediated by the amygdala. Although a rat with a lesioned amygdala shows minimal freezing, implying the absence of a state of fear, the same animal will defecate in the place where it was shocked.

Flavell, Flavell, Green, & Wilcox, 1980; Flavell, Flavell, & Green, 1983; see Astington, Harris, & Olsen, 1988, for other such projects). Two conferences held in the spring of 1986 gave the movement added identity and coherence. The presentations at these two conferences later were published in a book titled Developing Theories of Mind (Astington, Harris, & Olson, 1988), and the movement was officially launched. Figure 1 illustrates the main directions that theory-of-mind development research has taken since it began in the early 1980s.

Source: From "Development of Children's Knowledge About the Mental World," by J. H. Flavell, 2000, International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, p. 18. Reprinted with permission. is oriented correctly for them on the table will look upside down to a person seated opposite (Level 2 visual PT). From those beginnings work has progressed more or less concurrently in a variety of directions, as shown by the arrows in Figure 1. For more complete discussions of these topics, see the substantive reviews I cited earlier.

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