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Extra info for Appraisal and Repair of Timber Structures
In a very simplistic way, this structure may be represented by a bundle of drinking straws held together with elastic bands (Gordon (1976)). The straws represent the tracheids or ®bres, overlapping at their tips, strong and continuous in one direction, but held together only by the relatively weak bands which represent the rays. The strength of timber In order to get some quantitative understanding of the strength of timber, look at the results of standardised tests in accordance with BS 373 (1957): Fig.
Timber in the building environment Hazard class 2 Here the situation is as class 1, that is, under cover and protected from the direct eects of the weather, but where high environmental humidity could lead to occasional but not persistent wetting. This class brings the risk of fungal attack. The high humidities could stem from three sources: human occupation, faults in the fabric, or faults in the building services. This leads us to three sub-classes . Class 2A: cold areas with lack of ventilation, such as poorly ventilated roofs with insulation at ceiling level, or suspended ground ¯oor joists, where the air bricks in the external walls have either been omitted, or accidentally covered over.
As a generality, the timbers are denser and darker in colour than the softwoods. The most well-known (mahogany, aformosia, teak) have, in addition, a very beautiful ®gure and, as a consequence, have generally been priced out of the building ®eld, being used mainly for joinery and furniture. They are more diverse in character than the softwoods, but the common species are as strong or strongerÐin some cases, such as ekki, keruing or greenheart, considerably soÐbut large sections and lengths are only available in a few species.