By Frank R. Ettensohn, Nicholas Rast, Carlton Elliot Brett

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Extra resources for Ancient Seismites (GSA Special Paper 359)

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TECTONIC FRAMEWORK The Etna volcano (Fig. , 1995; Azzaro and Barbano, 2000). The northern inland extension of the Hyblean-Malta fault escarpment is the Timpe fault system, a belt of north-northwest–south-southeast–trending normal faults. , 1997). 0). , 1989; Lo Giudice and Rasà, 1992). One of the most active faults of the Timpe system, in terms of slip rates and seismicity, is the 340° trending, east-dipping Moscarello normal fault, 10 km long (Figs. , 2000). During the past two centuries, this fault has generated four seismic events (in 1855, 1865, 1911, and 1971) with intensities of VII–VIII to X MSK.

LS—lacustrine sediments related to late Pinedale shoreline; L-L’—linear feature across late Pinedale lacustrine sediments (see Fig. 2). 34 Mervin J. Bartholomew et al. Stratigraphic sequence in trench MBMG1986-6 The stratigraphic section in the trench (Table 1) can be divided into three parts: (1) the youngest loess deposits and associated soil horizons, (2) the underlying stream channel and associated laggravel deposit, and (3) the older fluvial and lacustrine deposits. 1. The youngest part reflects episodic accumulation of loess, capped by soil horizons, along the down-dropped hang- ing wall of the main Lima Reservoir fault.

9) in Centennial Valley. E: Paxis directions for recorded earthquakes (Fig. 9) in Centennial Valley. zone necessarily will also have northwest-trending, left-lateral faulting. Thus, as noted in the introduction, the Lima Reservoir fault zone is indeed located in an area of overlapping stress fields. As such, its displacement history is not a simple, episodic repetition of similar events. The sequence of six surface-rupturing events (Table 3 and Fig. 10) is constrained by (1) relationships among fault scarps, colluvial wedges and soil horizons, unconformities, and a syndepositional syncline; (2) reverse- and normal-fault relationships; and (3) clastic dike vents or ejecta and overstepping strata.

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