By Hiroshi Shimizu, Takashi Hirasawa (auth.), Volker F. Wendisch (eds.)

Amino Acids Biosynthesis provides the present wisdom of basic in addition to utilized microbiology of amino acids. subject matters mentioned are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical legislation, delivery of amino acids and genomics of manufacturing microorganisms. The characterization of the keep watch over mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has printed insights into ideas of genetic and biochemical law, equivalent to transcriptional regulators and a brand new classification of regulatory components, the riboswitch.

The quantity extra offers with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological creation of amino acids to be used as prescription drugs and, quite, as nutrition and feed ingredients. accomplished stories are given of contemporary achievements to let or increase construction of amino acids and dipeptides by way of fermentation and enzyme catalysis. the following, the actual concentration is on metabolic engineering, the rational development of metabolic services utilizing recombinant DNA technology.

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Sugiura et al. (1985) obtained proline analog-resistant mutants of Serratia marcescens harboring mutations in the putA gene encoding proline oxidase, which is involved in proline degradation. Hyperproduction of proline was achieved by mutants showing 3,4-dehydroproline, thiazoline-4carboxylate and azetidine-2-carboxylate resistance (Sugiura et al. 1985). Proline overproduction via the arginine biosynthetic pathway was also achieved by S. marcescens strains carrying the mutations of derepression of arginine biosynthesis, resistance to feedback inhibition of N-acetylglutamate synthase, and the defect in N-acetylornithine aminotransferase as well as proline ana- 28 H.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50:227–232 Kimura E (2002) Triggering mechanism of l-glutamate overproduction by DtsR1 in coryneform bacteria. J Biosci Bioeng 94:545–551 Kimura E (2003) Metabolic engineering of glutamate production. Adv Biochem Eng Biotech 79:37–58 Kimura E, Abe C, Kawahara Y, Nakamatsu T (1996) Molecular cloning of a novel gene, dtsR, which rescues the detergent sensitivity of a mutant derived from Brevibacterium lactofermentum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60:1565–1570 Kimura E, Abe C, Kawahara Y, Nakamatsu T, Tokuda H (1997) A dtsR gene-disrupted mutant of Brevibacterium lactofermentum requires fatty acids for growth and efficiently produces l-glutamate in the presence of ac excess of biotin.

In C. glutamicum, a global repressor protein AmtR regulates the nitrogen depletion-dependent gene expression (Jakoby et al. 2000). Deletion of the amtR gene leads to the constitutive expression of the amt gene encoding the ammonium uptake system. AmtR regulates the gene expression of the amtBglnK-glnD operon encoding another ammonium transporter AmtB, PII -type protein GlnK and uridylyltransferase, gltBD encoding GOGAT and glnA encoding GS. Yamada et al. (1979) reported glutamine formation by a penicillin-resistant mutant of Flavobacterium rigense, and the fermentation conditions using this microorganism were established by Nabe et al.

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