By H. S. Yang, H. Nagai, N. Takano, M. Murakami (auth.), Quan-Sheng Shu (eds.)

In contemporary years, the know-how of cryogenic comminution has been generally utilized within the box of chemical engineering, meals making, drugs construction, and especially in recycling of waste material. as a result expanding pollutants of waste tires and the lack of uncooked rubber source, the recycling technique for waste rubber items has turn into vital and commercially potential. This know-how has proven a number of merits similar to inflicting no environmental toxins, requiring low power intake and generating prime quality items. accordingly, the conventional crusher which was once used to reclaim fabrics, corresponding to waste tires, nylon, plastic and plenty of polymer fabrics at atmospheric 12 temperature is being changed by way of a cryogenic crusher. • within the cryogenic crusher, the valuables of the milled fabric is mostly very delicate to temperature swap. whilst a crusher is in operation, it is going to generate loads of warmth that explanations the fabric temperature elevated. as soon as the temperature raises over the vitrification temperature, the cloth estate will switch and lose the brittle habit inflicting the power intake to upward thrust sharply. hence, the comminution method can't be persevered. accordingly, it truly is believed that the cryogenic crusher is the main severe part within the cryogenic comminution approach. The learn at the temperature raise and effort intake within the cryogenic crusher isn't just to minimize the strength intake of the crasher, but additionally to lessen the strength intake of the cryogenic system.

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A test facility was developed to precisely determine the heat load and the mass leakage of cryogenic valves with Hell at their inlet. 5 bar. The valve outlet pipe temperature can be regulated between 5 K and 20 K. The heat flow is measured with high precision using a Kapitza-resistance heatmeter and is also crosschecked by a vaporization measurement. 1 W has been achieved. 2 mg/s. We present a detailed description of the test facility and the measurements showing its performances. INTRODUCTION CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle physics is presently building a new particle collider ( LHC) where the high magnetic fields required for particle guiding will be produced by superconducting magnets operating at 1.

The critical hydrostatic pressure in He II for the occurrence of noisy film boiling decreases as the bath temperature drops2• It is also well known that the heat transfer coefficient in noisy film boiling is lower than that in silent film boiling, which may be detrimental to practical Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Volume 45. , Kluwer Academic I Plenum Publishers, 2000. 017 cooling applications of He II. 4, and a few experiments have also been conducted using a planar heater1. 4. A boundary map for noisy film boiling in the case of a thin wire heater has been presented by Leonard 2, but it was only approximately drawn.

INTRODUCTION We consider the conditions present with simultaneous flow of He II and vapor in a partially filled horizontal channel. Such a system may represent a segment of a transfer line for distribution of He II in a large accelerator system. The liquid flow is driven by the addition of He II upstream and simultaneous extraction of He II downstream, while the coexisting vapor flows to remove the evaporated fluid due to the transfer of heat, see Fig. I. The boundary is sloping to compensate for the head loss.

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