By Aurelio Menéndez, Economic Development Institute (Washington, D.C.), International Development Centre (Canada), USAID Thailand

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The ESF staff evaluates each project on the basis of priority programs, site visits, cost estimates, and expected benefits. The projects are carried out by contractors and supervised by qualified institutions or professionals. Since ESF's mission was to operate swiftly, with effectiveness and transparency, ESF was implemented by a new and temporary institution that reported directly to the president of the republic. Several months after ESF was established, its executive staff considered that the participation of NGOs would be very important to accomplish ESF's goals, especially in health and education because of the government's limited effectiveness in these sectors.

It was also pointed out that while the integration or coordination of existing agencies has some advantages, such as using and possibly enhancing existing resources, the effort may be quite difficult due to bureaucratic policies and administrative inertia. Community Participation Another option at the micro level strongly advocated by participants was community participation. Participants felt that encouraging participation enables the people to voice their demands so that projects reflect the actual needs of the groups they attempt to help, and encourages acceptance and collaboration at the local level.

1F Les politiques de transport en Afrique francophone au sud du Sahara: Problèmes et choix. Hernán Levy. EDI Catalog no. 705/016. 2 Food Policy Seminar. J. Price Gittinger. EDI Catalog no. 505/003. 3 Agricultural Policy and Its Relationship to Food Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sakwa Bunyasi. EDI Catalog no. 070/001. 3F La politique agricole et ses rapports avec la politique alimentaire en Afrique subsaharienne. Sakwa Bunyasi. EDI Catalog no. 070/001. 4 Development Policy Analysis. David G. Davies.

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