By Peng T. Khaw, Peter Shah, Andrew R. Elkington

Within the 3 years because the third variation a lot has replaced within the remedy of eye stipulations. Glaucoma and macular degeneration, laser remedy in comparison with surgical procedure, the way to care for refractive error - these kinds of may be defined intimately and illustrated with newly commissioned drawings and pictures.

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Extra resources for ABC of Eyes 4th Edition (ABC Series)

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Remember that although the patient may describe the onset of visual loss as gradual, sight threatening diabetic retinopathy may still be present. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is typified by microaneurysms, dot haemorrhages, and hard yellow exudates with well defined edges. There also may be oedema of the macula, which is less easily identified but can lead to a fall in visual acuity. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy at the macula (diabetic maculopathy) is the major cause of blindness in maturity onset (type 2) diabetes, but it also occurs in younger, insulin dependent (type 1) diabetic patients.

However, an acuity of 6/6 does not necessarily exclude serious problems—even a penetrating injury. The visual acuity may also have considerable medicolegal implications. Local anaesthetic may need to be used to obtain a good view, and fluorescein must be used to ensure no abrasions are missed. Marginal laceration: always refer Foreign body Distorted pupil: beware penetrating injury Deep laceration of orbit: beware intraorbital and intraocular penetration and retained foreign bodies Hyphaema: always refer Epithelial loss—may be missed without fluorescein Subconjunctional haemorrhage: if it tracks posteriorly beware orbital fracture The injured eye Common types of eye injury ● ● ● ● ● ● Corneal abrasions Foreign bodies Radiation damage Chemical damage Blunt injuries with hyphaema Penetrating injuries Corneal abrasions Corneal abrasions are the most common result of blunt injury.

If the eye is affected, topical antibiotics may prevent secondary infection, and aciclovir ointment is used. Oral antiviral therapy (for example, aciclovir) given early in the course of the disease may reduce the incidence of long term sequelae such as postherpetic neuralgia. Inflammation of upper eyelid after expression of blackhead Dacryocystitis with associated lid inflammation Herpes simplex with associated conjunctivitis Proptosis and enophthalmos Globe protrusion (proptosis) and sunken globe (enophthalmos) result in an asymmetrical position of the globes, which can often be best appreciated by standing behind Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with swollen eyelids 23 ABC of Eyes the patient and looking from above their head (comparing the position of the eyes relative to the brows).

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