By Donald R. Hill
During this entire background, Donald Hill opens a window on medieval and classical engineering. The ebook specializes in on Greece, Rome and medieval Western Europe, but in addition contains fascinating details on center jap technology.
Documenting over 1800 years, Donald Hill illustrates how classical and medieval engineers designed early irrigation structures, dams, bridges, clocks and the way they harnessed the facility of either water and wind. operating mostly and not using a quantified, clinical foundation for his or her designs, those early engineers studied the homes of fabrics and how during which fluids and solids behaved in convinced stipulations. They then utilized this information to successfully clear up difficulties. This interesting examine files over 1800 years of early engineering.
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Extra resources for A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times
Sugiura et al. (1985) obtained proline analog-resistant mutants of Serratia marcescens harboring mutations in the putA gene encoding proline oxidase, which is involved in proline degradation. Hyperproduction of proline was achieved by mutants showing 3,4-dehydroproline, thiazoline-4carboxylate and azetidine-2-carboxylate resistance (Sugiura et al. 1985). Proline overproduction via the arginine biosynthetic pathway was also achieved by S. marcescens strains carrying the mutations of derepression of arginine biosynthesis, resistance to feedback inhibition of N-acetylglutamate synthase, and the defect in N-acetylornithine aminotransferase as well as proline ana- 28 H.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 50:227–232 Kimura E (2002) Triggering mechanism of l-glutamate overproduction by DtsR1 in coryneform bacteria. J Biosci Bioeng 94:545–551 Kimura E (2003) Metabolic engineering of glutamate production. Adv Biochem Eng Biotech 79:37–58 Kimura E, Abe C, Kawahara Y, Nakamatsu T (1996) Molecular cloning of a novel gene, dtsR, which rescues the detergent sensitivity of a mutant derived from Brevibacterium lactofermentum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60:1565–1570 Kimura E, Abe C, Kawahara Y, Nakamatsu T, Tokuda H (1997) A dtsR gene-disrupted mutant of Brevibacterium lactofermentum requires fatty acids for growth and efﬁciently produces l-glutamate in the presence of ac excess of biotin.
In C. glutamicum, a global repressor protein AmtR regulates the nitrogen depletion-dependent gene expression (Jakoby et al. 2000). Deletion of the amtR gene leads to the constitutive expression of the amt gene encoding the ammonium uptake system. AmtR regulates the gene expression of the amtBglnK-glnD operon encoding another ammonium transporter AmtB, PII -type protein GlnK and uridylyltransferase, gltBD encoding GOGAT and glnA encoding GS. Yamada et al. (1979) reported glutamine formation by a penicillin-resistant mutant of Flavobacterium rigense, and the fermentation conditions using this microorganism were established by Nabe et al.